What is tekke, dervish, tyrbe and mekami?
n Bektashi terminology, the tekke, where the father and the dervishes live, where he performs the religious services and ceremonies of the Bektashis. The tekke in Albanian means resting place, welcomes and accompanies everyone regardless of religion and race, has charity, solidarity, love and brotherhood. They have traditionally been resting, hospitable for every traveler, who in the first three days was considered a guest, in the other days he was told the work he would do in the tekke. With the income of the tekke with land and cattle, rent, helping the believers and lovers with the work and toil of the dervishes, he helps the poor, as the people say “he made the house a tekke”, the tekke is a holy place, even today in the people swear “for that tekke”. Building structures are necessary for the organization and direction of a tekke by the father and the dervishes. Architecture has artistic features and original forms with inscriptions and symbols. The greatest flourishing of the architecture of tekkes was in the century. XVII-XVIII from the requirements of the time of the social environment, which with their presence ensured the social organization together with the religious one. The tekkes have preserved as a typology the architectural requirements of the World Center in Haji Belktash, Turkey. However, it also has a solid, simple appearance in construction and resembles the popular dwellings of rural or urban urban environments where they are erected. In its construction structure contain the canonical requirements of the mystical order as:
Mejdan, of spiritual (spiritual) ceremonies, Chimney cafe (talk room), Teacher, Kitchen, Dormitory, Warehouse (cellar).
Outside the building there is a hut (barn) for animals, etc. Features are the tekke of Backa in Skrapar, the tekke of Zall, Melani in Gjirokastra, the tekke of Dollma in Kruja, also declared a Cultural Monument by the state. The tekke of Prishtina in Skrapar, Turan and Melçan and their inns in Korça were special, as well as others, which were destroyed by the storms of time and the ban of religion by the communist state in 1967. In each tekke is the tomb of the founder, as evidence of their origin, located in tombs near the tekke. During the National Renaissance, Bektashi temples were turned into Albanian schools, of persecuted primers, in the shelter of insurgent groups. With the motto “Without homeland there is no religion”.
Today we have the monumental building in the Bektashi World Headquarters, the multifunctional odeon with facilities for religious-cultural activities, the Museum of Bektashism, the Archive and Library and other work environments.
Dervishes as a term, are small tekkes or dervishes, i.e. the center where only dervishes stayed, is run all the time by a dervish and guardians. Dervishes, are small tekkes with few rooms. In Skrapar there were dervishes of Vërzhezhë, Polena, Çërrica, Malindi, Strenec, dervish of Tomor below Çuka Abaz Ali (1908-1914), Dervish of Gostomoicka-Përmet, Kosina according to sources
archives the dervishes of Vërzhezhë and Polena, Çërrica, Tomorica, in 1950 were led by dervishes Syrja Vërzhezha and Polena, dervishes Veli Polena, in Çerica, father Abdurraman Hoxha, as its guardian. The Malindi dervishes have always been led by the Ibrahimi family, as they have been throughout Albania.
Tyrbe-Ja, or Tyrbe, tylbe, according to the provinces and areas, the meaning in Bektashi terminology is a monument built for a man whom believers consider sacred and known in his religious life. Small building with strong construction, quadrangular or pentagonal even more according to Bektashi symbolism, as well as stone pillars with well-hewn stones, kissed stones or symmetrical eyebrows giving the building a special charm. They are with a dome-like cover, dome covered with stone cases. Inside is the tomb (tomb) of the founder, as evidence of the beginning of the tekke and other later tombs, but in large tekkes there are also two or more tombs. Tombs are usually covered but there are also uncovered, open.
Mekam means the tomb of a prominent saint with religious and human virtues, it is a small simple quadrangular building covered with stone races. They are alone in the villages and near every tekke and dervish. This term is used more in the areas of central and southern Albania. (Gramsh, Korça, Kolonjë, Berat, Skrapar, Përmet, Ttepelena, Mallakastra, Vlora)
Some heretical doctrines claiming to belong to Islam have raised problematic issues and numerous discussions as to why we pray to the tombs, meccas and good places. It is necessary to understand extensively and deeply the doctrinal concept of Islam and the mystical paths of Islam, the tariqats in the spiritual aspect, divine according to the Qur’an. In the terminology of tasawwuf, tariqah means the path that leads to Allah. Tariqah is a discipline. Respectively, it is an institution that aims to implement exercises for achieving the essence of religion through respect for the foundations of Sharia. Baba Rexhebi in his work “Islamic mysticism and bectashism ”clearly states that: Mysticism, or tasawwuf, as it is known from the Islamic world, is the spiritual vitality of man. It is the fruit that comes out when man eliminates his selfishness and material existence, through religious rules, and becomes the possessor of the throne of the heart. ” And this is achieved by purifying the soul from all evil and spiritual equipment with the love of the Almighty God, and this is based on the high divine word: “Neither heaven nor earth teaches Me, only the heart of the obedient believer teaches me.” The forefathers of the tariqahs, considering human character and temperament, have noticed three paths of spiritual travel and education: tariq-i ahjar (the path of the good), tariq-i-ebrar (the path of the benefactors) and tariq-shuttar (the path of the ashiks). , worshipers of the faith).
Tasawwuf as well as other Islamic disciplines started in the time of the Prophet, they have developed further. In these three paths of spiritual journey it is achieved that the pursuers purify the heart, live with high morals, eradicate all bad habits and be endowed with high human qualities, do good to humanity, and be truly faithful and worshiper of the Creator. The fact of building holy places on the graves of some individuals is not something common, but this action is a divine will that has many dimensions. The Prophetic Hadiths say: “When you find yourself close to good places, they know your plight.” In this way forgiveness and worship of God are conceived, holy places are the connection between them. To know the tariqah you have to know the tasafuf better and better, to learn endlessly the knowledge of mysticism.